Bogdan Petrović: Izgradnja autoputeva – koridori koji nikako …

Pomeranje rokova za završetak Koridora 10, odnosno putnih pravaca ka Makedoniji i Grčkoj na sredinu 2018. godinu nije iznađenje, pošto su do sada ionako sva obećanja o rokovima stalno padala u vodu. Ali ovog puta smo čuli nešto originalno od ministarke Zorane Mihajlović, koja je, obrazlažući odlaganje „subjektivnim i objektivnim razlozima“, izjavila „za mene je autoput gotov“!

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Krenulo se ambiciozno još 2008. godine, ali se nije daleko došlo

Tužna priča o najvećem investicionom poduhvatu u poslednjih 30 godina – koridoru 10, počela je 2008. godine, kada je oformljeno telo nazvano „Nacionalni savet za infrastrukturu“, kome je predsedavao tadašnji predsednik Boris Tadić (inače, u julu 2012. godine je Ustavni sud ocenio da odluka o osnivanju tog tela neustavna). Izgradnja autoputeva trebala je da posluži kao amortizer pada BDP-a usled izbijanja svetske ekonomske krize –javnim radovima se povećavaju privredne aktivnosti.

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Usvojeni su planovi i strategije o razvoju putne i železničke mreže. Završetak autoputeva planiran je do kraja mandata vlade Mirka Cvetkovića, odnosno maja 2012. godine. Međutim, prošle su 4 godine, a nije završena nijedna deonica. Ipak je urađen jedan važan korak – obezbeđeno je finansiranje radova sa povoljnim kreditima međunarodnih finansijskih institucija (uz izuzetak azerbejdžanskog kredita, o čemu će biti reči kasnije). Inače, Boris Tadić se na početku mandata te vlade stalno pojavljivao na sednicima tog Saveta – ali kako je vreme proticalo, a ispostavilo se da ni jedna deonica neće biti okončana – Savet sa Borisom na čelu je jednostavno „nestao“ iz medija.

 

Objektivni problemi su postojali, ali su pojačani greškama političara

Veliki promašaj svih vlada Srbije nakon 5. oktobra je bilo odsustvo strateških odluka o razvoju infrastrukture. Izgradnja puteva počinje sa dugotrajnim, ali relativno jeftinim procedurama, a to su izrada planske dokumentacije, usvajanje prostornih planova, donošenje odluka o eksproprijaciji (pre toga, mora se pristupiti i preparcelaciji), određivanju naknada za nepokretnost (koja ne mora da se odmah izuzme iz poseda i isplati). Sve to nisu veliki troškovi za državu, jer planska dokumentacija ne košta puno, ali se zbog nesposobnosti i neorganizovanosti godinama praktično ništa nije radilo.

Odluka da se 2008. godine pristupi izgradnji putne mreže bila potpuno na mestu, ali je i upućenima bilo jasno, da se usled nepostojanja planske dokumentacije a posledično tome i nesprovedene eksproprijacije, u roku od 4 godine ne može završiti autoput.

Usledio je veliki pritisak na projektantske kuće od strane resornog ministra Mrkonjića (u Srbiji takve projekte mogu da rade Institut za puteve i CIP) da se projekti završavaju što pre, pa čak i bez svih neophodnih ispitivanja terena.

Tako se i dogodilo da je projektna dokumentacija na pojedinim deonicama izrađena a da nisu sprovedena sva potrebna geofizička i geomehanička istraživanja terena, odnosno da nisu utvrđena eventualna klizišta i sastav zemljišta. Posledica takvih projekata su pojave „klizišta“ i niza drugih problema na koje su nailazili izvođači radova pa se često dešavalo da nakon početka radova na određenoj deonici, izvođač konstatuje da nije moguće postupiti po projektu pošto usled svojstva terena dolazi do klizišta. Tada se radovi prekidaju, projektant mora da preprojektuje spornu deonicu (uz ponovno izdavanje građevinske dozvole) a za to vreme izvođač radova stoji, ali uredno naplaćuje penale državi kao investitoru (u žargonu se to zove „klejm“), pošto on ne snosi nikakvu odgovornost za loše urađen projekat.

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Pokazalo se i da je sprovođenje eksproprijacije u tolikom obimu  (preko 200km autoputa) bio veliki zahtev koji državni organi nisu mogli da realizuju u kratkim rokovima, pa su se pojedini postupci eksproprijacije razvlačili do 2015. godine. Čuven je i slučaj izvesnog kamenoresca, koji je samo tražio da se njegova oprema (ubetonirana) stručno izmesti, a da su Putevi Srbije bili nesposobni da to organizuju, pa je tamo dolazio i odred žandarmerije pa se vraćao, sve dok se nije angažovala stručna ekipa za demontažu opreme. Kamenorezac nije pružao otpor, ali nije hteo da se skloni pre nego što se stručno demontira njegova oprema, pošto su Putevi angažovali obične rušitelje umesto specijalizovanu firmu. Na kraju je pronađeno solomonsko rešenje, pa je opština Leskovac iz svojih sredstava platila posebnu firmu radi demontiranja, kako Putevi ne bi morali da sprovode poseban postupak javne nabavke.

Ponekad radovi kasne i iz objektivnih razloga, ali je to ređe bio slučaj

U ovako velikim projektima uvek su moguća i određena iznenađenja, koja se ne mogu izbeći ni uz najpažljivije projektovanje i izvođenje. To je posebno izraženo kod gradnje tunela, gde su moguća razna iznenađenja, poput sastava stena, nailaska na vodene žile, što usporava i komplikuje radove. Problem su bile i vremenske neprilike 2014. godine. Kao objektivni razlog kašnjenja mora se uzeti u obzir i bankrot jednog od izvođača, Alpine, usled čega je morao biti raspisan novi tender za radove.

Organizacioni cirkus sa osnivanjem Koridora doo

Već sam zadatak izgradnje preko 200km autoputa u državi koja je godinama, a može se reći i decenijama „tavorila“ sa ozbiljnom izgradnjom putne mreže predstavljao je veliki organizaciono tehnički izazov za nosioca posla – JP „Putevi Srbije“. U podeli kolača koalicione vlade koju je predvodila Demokratska stranka, resor saobraćaja i infrastrukture pripao je SPS-u, kao i mesto direktora Puteva.

Uvidevši da je izgradnja autoputeva prilika za veliki posao (ogromna vrednost radova u trenutku krize), u nameri da najveći deo kolača bude pod kontrolom DS-a, osnovano je i posebno preduzeće Koridori Srbije d.o.o. Plen je podeljen pa se na čelu Koridora našao kadar DS, dok je mesto direktora Puteva ostalo SPS-u.

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Podelom Puteva došlo je dualiteta u poslu pa tako Putevi Srbije vode postupke eksproprijacije a onda „uskaču“ Koridori sa izvođenjem radova. Podela je samo dodatno iskomplikovala i usporilo realizaciju projekata, uz dodatak da je na ovaj način omogućeno da zaposleni u Koridorima imaju značajno veće plate od Puteva (čime su stimulisani da rade, ali su ovi drugi destimulisani).

Skandal sa Azerbejdžanom

Za razliku od svih deonica autoputa na koridoru 10 koje su ugovarane sa Svetskom bankom ili drugim međunarodnim institucionalnim kreditorima, u vreme Borisa Tadića ugovorena je deonica od 40 km puta od Ljiga do Preljine uz kredit države Azerbejdžan s tim da se na radovima angažuje bez tendera njihova kompanija Azvirt. Ispostavilo se da je taj posao, iako su uslovi kredita bili relativno povoljni (3,5% kamate je tada bilo ispod troškova zaduživanja zemlje na tržištu, ali ne i danas) veoma nepovoljan, ali je zato je napumpana cena radova za više od 40 miliona evra nego što je bilo realno (postoje procene vredsnosti radova, ali se na to vlast nije obazirala). Kao „protivuslugu“ demokrate su obezbedile „donaciju“ od 2 miliona evra za Tašmajdanski park od Azerbejdžana.  I na kraju se ispostavilo da je Srbija preplaćenim autoputem za 40 miliona evra finansirala uređenje Tašmajdana, gde smo dobili pride i statuu „velikog demokratskog“ doživotnog predsednika te države Gajdara Alijeva (koji je uzgred budi rečeno u vreme SSSR-a bio šef republičkog KGB-a – demokrata za uzor). Korist od te donacije imali su i vlasnici restorana Madera, pošto su na račun parka proširili parking.

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Ne treba da nas čudi što je Boris Tadić i dalje „veliki prijatelj“ Azerbejdžana.

Naprednjaci su takođe ambiciozno počeli, ali su rezultati izostali

 

Kada su demokrate shvatile da neće uspeti da završe ni jednu deonicu autoputa do izbora,  propaganda oko izgradnje puteva je prestala, a Nacionalni savet za infrastrukturu sa Borisom Tadićem na čelu je jednostavno„nestao“ iz javnosti. Aleksandar Vučić je nakon preuzimanja vlasti 2012. godine, preuzeo inicijativu kako bi mogao da eksploatiše završetak radova kao veliki uspeh svoje politike. Resor infrastrukture je preuzeo Velimir Ilić, dok je Dmitar Đurović iz SNS-a postao direktor preduzeća Koridori Srbije. SPS-ov zabran u Putevima nije diran.

Vučić je obilato koristio izgradnju puteva radi sopstvene promocije – stalno je pokazivao mape sa ucrtanim radovima, učestali su obilasci gradilišta, ali realnost na terenu nije nimalo odgovarala njegovim prezentacijama. Rokovi su stalno pomerani, pa se ispostavilo da će koridor 10 u najboljem slučaju biti gotov u toku leta 2018. godine, iako je najavljivano da će se završiti do 2015., pa do kraja 2016., pa na proleće 2017. godine.

Buldožer zvani Zorana Mihajlović

Međutim, pravi spektakl sa rokovima i  ispraznim obećanjima počeo je sa izborom Zorane Mihajlović za resor infrastrukture u leto 2014. godine. Već je najava premijera Aleksandra Vučića da njemu treba u tom resoru buldožer i da se zato opredelio za gđu Mihajlović, garantovala dobru zabavu.

Aktivnosti nove ministarke su počeli da ređaju velikom brzinom. Kao osoba koja ogromnu pažnju pridaje medijskom nastupu, ministarka je organizovala učestale posekte gradilištima. Formirani su i „posebni timovi“ sa „mentorom“ iz ministarstva za svaku deonicu.

Odmah je Zorana Mihajlović lansirala u javnost nameru da se spoje 2 preduzeća, Putevi i Koridori, radi „velikih ušteda“, pa je ta aktivnost čak uneta u memorandum koji je zaključen sa MMF-om. Ali takva operacija nije moguća samo prostim aktom vlade – neophodno je obezbediti i saglasnost svih kreditora, pošto su i Koridori i Putevi korisnici međunarodnih zajmova.

Proces obezbeđivanja saglasnosti se razvukao skoro godinu dana, a kada je i poslednja saglasnost stigla, ministarka je naprasno odustala od toga, shvativši verovatno da bi spajanje donelo zanemarljive uštede materijalne uštete. Pri tome, spajanje preduzeća u jeku investicionih aktivnosti može samo dovesti do organizacionih i tehničkih problema (posebno pošto su u Koridorima znatno veće zarade, nastao bi i problem oko usaglašavanja njihovog nivoa). Zli jezici kažu da je odustala i što je našla zajednički jezik sa direktorom Koridora Đurovićem, s kojim je bila dosta dugo u ličnom sukobu.

Otvaranje deonice od 10km koja ne vodi nikud

Ministarka se proslavila i insistiranjem da se po svaku cenu završi deonica od 10 km autoputa između Uba i Lajkovca, koja je bila poverena domaćim putarskim firmama. Uz veliku medijsku pompu, ministarka je nenajavljena obilazila radove, preslišavala predstavnike  izvođača radova kako se bespotrebno odugovlači, kako nema radnika na gradilištu, pretila penalima i raskidom ugovora. Pritisnut od strane ministarstva, Planum je završio je tu deonicu u decembru 2014. godine. Međutim, kako deonica nije povezana sa drugim deonicama, otvoren je deo autoputa koji ne vodi nikuda. Time je samo državi napravljena šteta – pošto su izvođači predali radove, država mora da u međuvremenu održava put koji nema nikakvu funkciju ( tek će krajem ove godine biti povezan sa drugim deonicama) a ističe i garantni rok, za koji izvođači odgovaraju za propuste. Nastup Zorane Mihajlović, osim medijskog cirkusa, doveo je do besmislenih troškova za državu, koja 3 godine mora da održava deonicu koja nije u funkciji (i ne donosi nikakve prihode).

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Afera sa Aktorom se zataškava

Ništa bolji od domaćih izvođača nisu se pokazali ni „renomirani“ inostrani, naprotiv,  može se reći da je kašnjenje grčke kompanije Aktor napravilo mnogo više problema od srpskog konzorcijuma. Zbog velikih neplaćenih obaveza prema podizvođačima, Aktoru je skoro 2 godine bio i blokiran račun u Srbiji, sve do ovog proleća.

Za to vreme, na gradilištu je bilo malo ili nimalo radnika, ali ministarka se nije pojavljivala i pred kamerama preslišavala grčke vlasnike ili direktore.

Da stvar bude još gora, Velimir Ilić, kada je shvatio da je izigran od strane Aleksandra Vučića za mesto direktora Koridora, objavio je početkom godine interni zapisnik ministarstva o praćenju radova koje izvodi Aktor, sa više nego poražavajućim konstatacijama na račun Aktora kao i Koridora kao investitora. Ispostavilo se da su Koridori uplatili skoro duplo veći avans nego što je bilo predviđeno ugovorom, da Aktor kasni na svim gradilištima (a ima ih 4), da postoje veliki problemi oko realizacije ugovora i puno osnova da se ugovori raskinu.

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Cela afera je zataškana (ministarka je tvrdila da je u pitanju radna verzija izveštaja, ali konačnu verziju nije objavila) a u međuvremenu, Aktor je uspeo da deblokira račun, i poslednjih dva meseca aktivira gradilišta koja su bila zaustavljena.

Ostao je međutim gorak ukus dvostrukih standarda i medijskog prozivanja domaćih firmi i potpuno drugačijeg odnosa prema Aktoru (dupli avans u odnosu na ugovor, tolerisanje kašnjenja, uvećanje vrendosti radova).  Treba imati u vidu da naše kompanije nisu kašnjenjem ugrozile ostatak radova – dok je Aktor kašnjenjem prolongirao otvaranje ključne deonice prema Bugarskoj – Sićevačke klisure za leto 2018. godine.

Ministarka je i propustila da objasni, kako su se desili takvikpropusti, kada su u ministarstvu postojali „mentori“ koji su nadzirali izvođenje svake deonice.

Štete usled kašnjenja se mere desetinama miliona evra godišnje a dodatni radovi više od 150 miliona evra

Kašnjenje oba ključna pravca autoputa napravilo je više nekoliko desetina miliona evra godišnje štete samo po osnovu nemogućnosti naplate putarine u dužini od preko 200km (neke deonice su otvorene, ali se ne naplaćuju jer su kratke). Sve do okončanja radova (a obe trase teško mogu da budu gotove pre leta 2018. godine) država će gubiti sredstva, koja je mogla da prikupi da su radovi izvedeni u ugovorenim rokovima.

Veliki trošak za državu izazivaju i takozvani „klejmovi“, odnosno, dodatne isplate izvođačima radova. Prema nezvaničnim informacijma, od 2012. godine prihvaćeno je više od 150 miliona evra kao naknada štete izvođačima usled propusta države kao naručioca. To se odnosi i na greške usled lošeg projektovanja ali i čitav niz drugih razloga, kao što je kašnjenje eksproprijacije i slično.

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Prilikom odlučivanja o visini dodatnih radova ili štete kroz „klejm“, primenjuju se prilično rastegljivi kriterijumi. Upućeni tvrde da su razlozi za veliki broj „klejmova“ i činjenica da su izvođači birani po prinicipu najniže cene. Tako se dešavalo da su pojedini ugovori sklopljeni ispod cene koštanja (kako bi ponuđač potpisao ugovor daje izuzetno nisku cenu na tenderu) a onda „klejmuje“ i na taj način postiže naplaćuje mnogo više, čak i po trećinu ili polovinu iznad vrednosti ugovora. Igra je prosta – da bi se posao dobio, daje se preniska cena, ali se računa na naplatu kroz klejmove. Odlučivanje o visini „klejma“ je poseban problem, jer je to potencijalni izvor korupcije i u velikoj meri zavisi od diskrecionog odlučivanja direktora Koridora.

Za 5 godina vlasti, naprednjaci su ugovorili samo 20 km autoputa

Radovi na koridoru 10 se polako privode kraju i pored svih slabosti i sasvim je moguće, ukoliko ne dođe do većih problema sa Aktorom ili nekim drugim izvođačem, da oba pravca budu završena u leto 2018. godine, kao i deonica od Obrenovca do Ljiga.

Vlasti stalno tvrde kako će država nastaviti sa intenzivnom izgradnjom putne mreže. U pitanju je čitav niz putnih pravaca: Niš-Priština, završetak obilaznice oko Beograda, Surčin-Obrenovac, Pojate-Preljina, Novi Sad-Ruma, Požega-Boljare, brza pruga do Budimpešte. Sama najava tolikog broja novih autoputeva, ukupne dužine preko 350 dovodi do konfuzije, jer ni u najboljim okolnostima ne postoji mogućnost da se organizuje toliki broj gradilišta.

Od svega pomenutog, do danas je počela izgradnja na mostu preko Save na beogradskoj obilaznici kao i izgradnja deonice Surčin Obrenovac. Ugovor je potpisan, ali kredit još nije ratifikovan, za deonicu oblaznice od Ostružnice do Bubanj-potoka. Sa Kinom je potpisan memorandum o razumevanju za deonicu Preljina Požega, kao i za prugu ka Budimpešti. Do početka radova ostalo je i tu dosta posla – tako da nije realno da ti radovi počnu ove godine.

Političke igre oko puta Niš-Priština

Odsustvo bilo kakve koncepcije od strane vlasti prati najava izgradnje autoputa Niš-Priština. Iako je prvobitno Aleksandar Vučuć najavljivao da će se to finansirati iz donacija EU, pošto Srbija nema prostora za dodatno zaduživanje (famozna Berlinska inicijativa) od toga po svemu sudeći neće biti ništa.

Cena puta je, po rečima ministarke Mihajlović, preko 860 miliona evra, za sada se planira izgradnja od Niša ka Pločniku, vrednosti preko 220 miliona, koji će biti finansiran kreditima Evropske investicione banke i Svetske banke. Sve to je, po njenim rečima „dogovoreno“ na samitu Berlinske inicijative u Trstu.

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Srbija je dakle pristala da pokrene izgradnju putnog pravca koji nema nikakvu isplativost, ne obezbeđuje povezanost nijednog većeg grada u Srbiji, koji će uvećati javni dug za 3%. Prazno deluju priče predsednika Vučića da će to Srbiji približiti luku Drač. Luku koja je slepo crevo, osim za Albance, i nema železničku vezu, to je suprotno svakoj ekonomskoj logici.

Odustalo se od insistiranja o donaciji. I stvarno, na tom samitu obećane su donacije od 185 miliona evra (za ceo „Zapadni Balkan“ to je kap u moru) a sve ostalo moraju da obezbede korisnici. Srbiji je tu pripala utešna nagrada za deo troškova izgradnje gasovoda Niš-Sofija. Naravno, za Niš-Prištinu, nije bilo prostora. Tako će naše vlasti primiti na sebe novu obavezu, u cilju „regionalne saradnje“. Za utehu je, što, usled poslovične nesposobnosti da ugovore veće projekte, od toga najverovatnije neće biti ništa.

Tajno pregovaranje oko „moravskog koridora“

Iz medija smo mogli saznati da u Srbiju dolaze i predstavnici Američke kompanije Behtel i da su počeli razgovori sa njima oko izgradnje tkzv „moravskog koridora“. Poznato je da je ta kompanija ne učestvuje u međunarodnim tenderima, da je veoma skupa, i da iza njenog angažovanja obično stoji namera vlasti neke države da se oduži američkoj administraciji.

Tako je Hrvatska preplatila izgradnju autoputa kroz Dalmaciju, koji ima projektovani saobraćaj samo u toku 2 letnja meseca i sada opterećuje državu sa ogromnim troškovima servisiranja komercijalnih zajmova (sa velikim kamatama).

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Drugi abonent Behtela bila je Albanija, koja je poverila njima izgradnju autoputa do Prištine, opet naravno bez bilo kakvog tendera.

Jasno je zašto su Hrvatska i Albanija morale da „se oduže“ preko Behtela, samo nije jasno šta je Srbija dobila od SAD kako bi iz zahvalnosti dala velike poslove Behtelu.

Preuzimanje Koridora od strane Zorana Babića

Poseban biser predstavlja odlazak iz Koridora Dmitra Đurovića i imenovanje Zorana Babića na njegovo mesto. Uz sve pohvale ministarke Mihajlović da je neprestano na terenu, ni Babić neće moći da obezbedi da se radovi na oba ključna pravca završe pre leta 2018. godine.

Ali upućeni kažu da se iza smene kriju i određeni interesi unutar vladajućeg SNS-a. Đurović je kadar i bliski prijatelj Nebojše Stefanovića. Iza Babića pak stoji najbliže okruženje predsednika Vučića.

Praksa izbegavanja tendera preko međudržavnih ugovora

Prethodna vlast je preko međudržavnog ugovora sa Azerbejdžanom izbegla tendersku proceduru za izgradnju autoputeva, kao za most Mihajla Pupina.

Vlast Aleksandra Vučića sa svoje strane pokazuje tendenciju da u potpunosti izbegava tenderske procedure. Preko međudržavnog sporazuma sa Kinom pokriva se izgradnja pravca Surčin-Obrenovac, a planira se mnogo više (nastavak obilaznice, Preljina-Požega, pruga ka Budimpešti…), a postoji mogućnost da se aktiviraju i sporazumi sa Emiratima.

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Takvi aranžmani nose rizik da cena bude znatno veća od cene koju bi postigli na osnovu tendera. Iskustvo sa Azerbedžanom trebalo bi da bude pouka da se to primenjuje samo izuzetno a ne po pravilu.

Najavljuje se izgradnja više stotina km autoputeva, ali su to prazne priče

Uprkos sve medijske propagande, vlast Aleksandra Vučića nije uspela da u optimalnim rokovima završi izgradnju putne mreže. Novi ugovori, uz pomenuti izuzetak pravca Surčin-Obrenovac, nisu sklopljeni.

Javnost se bombarduje sa najavama izgradnje čitave mreže autoputeva: Novi Sad-Ruma, „moravski koridor“, obilaznica oko Beograda, druga faza obilaznice Bubanj potok-Pančevo, Niš-Priština, autoput ka Sarajevu. Ništa manja megalomanija nije ni oko izgradnje brze pruge ka Budimpešti (gde će nas po svoj prilici spasti birokratija EU koja se protivi da Mađarska sklapa takve aranžmane).

putevi 12

Kapitalna stvar je da će Srbija do kraja leta sledeće godine završiti izgradnju 2 autouteva do Makedonije i Bugarske, da će se od Obrenovca do Preljine putovati manje od sat vremena. Nevolja je da novih ugovora nema zbog nesposobnosti vlasti, niti će ih biti u dogledno vreme (osim 2 navedene deonice).

Zamajavanje naroda se može i tada nastaviti – ali se možda i obije o glavu vlastima.

Bogdan Petrović

Bogdan Petrović: Izgradnja autoputeva – koridori koji nikako da se završe na vreme

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